UserService Implementation

In this section we will implement the UserService and make sure it passes the tests.

As discussed under Application Architecture, the value object is a special packaging of attributes from one more more entities, with the purpose of shielding the entities from other tiers of the application and/or external applications. To implement the getAllUsers() method in UserService, we will now define a User entity. To keep things simple, we will do a straight one-to-one mapping of attributes in UserVO to the attributes in the User entity. The model of the User entity is shown on the right. Note that we have not explicitly modeled the id attribute -- all entities are assumed to have an id attribute of type Long. You need to model an id only if this default assumption is not true, i.e. your id attribute has a different name or type.

Note that AndroMDA will map the User entity to a database table called USER. However USER happens to be a reserved word in several databases. So we will force AndroMDA to map this entity to a table called USERS. This exercise will also show you how to override AndroMDA's default code generation behavior.

Now let us enter the User entity in the TimeTracker model. Please follow one of the links below to edit the model with the UML tool of your choice.

Next we will add a couple of dependency relationships to our model to tell AndroMDA about dependencies between some of the elements we have modeled. The first is the dependency from the User entity to the UserVO. This dependency is shown on the right and tells AndroMDA to generate conversion methods between User and UserVO objects. The conversion methods are generated in UserDaoBase, the data access object for the User entity. They take care of simple conversions, however if your value objects are complicated (for example, if they have attributes fetched from related entities), then you will have to override the default conversion methods to fill in the additional attributes. Anyway, our UserVO is simple enough that the default conversion methods work perfectly!

Please follow one of the links below to enter this new dependency in the model.

Next add a dependency from UserService to the User entity. This dependency is shown below and tells AndroMDA to give UserService access to the User entity. From an implementation perspective, this injects a UserDao instance into UserService. As you may have guessed, UserDao is the data access object that allows its clients to read and write User entities from the database.

Please follow one of the links below to enter this new dependency in the model.

Now let's ask AndroMDA to generate code for the User entity:

  1. Execute the command mvn install in the Command Prompt. Note that the build will not succeed because the test will still fail, however the code generation part should succeed.

Open the folder C:/timetracker/core/target/src/org/andromda/timetracker/domain in Windows Explorer. Note that there are 5 files generated in this folder as a result of creating the single User entity in the application model.

  1. This is the primary class that implements the User entity. It contains the 3 attributes from the model along with their getters and setters. AndroMDA automatically adds an id attribute that represents the unique identifier for User instances in the database. In addition, AndroMDA generates equals() and hashCode() methods for the entity. Note that User is an abstract class - it cannot be instantiated. The UserImpl class described below, is a concrete class that extends User. It can be instantiated using the factory methods embedded in the User class.
  2. As mentioned above UserImpl is a concrete extension of the User class. It is meant to be a container for any custom code that developers would like to add to the User entity.
  3. Data access objects for any entity are created as a trio of classes: an interface, an abstract base class and a concrete implementation. UserDao is the interface for the User data access object. It specifies CRUD methods for the DAO.
  4. UserDaoBase implements all of the CRUD methods specified in the UserDao interface class.
  5. User.hbm.xml: This is the Hibernate mapping file that maps the User entity to its relational representation in the database.

Now open the folder C:/timetracker/core/src/main/java/org/andromda/timetracker/domain in Windows Explorer. Note that there is 1 additional file generated in this folder:

  1. UserDaoImpl is a concrete extension of the UserDaoBase class created in the target folder above. It is meant to be a container for any custom code that developers would like to add to the User data access object.

Note that the target folder is intended for auto generated files only. None of the files in this folder should be modified by hand because code regeneration will wipe them out completely, thus deleting all your changes. It is also a best practice not to check this code into your source repository. Instead let your build script generate it on the fly.

By now you must be wondering where to add your custom code. We already said above that developers can add custom code into and But why is generated in the target folder then? Well, AndroMDA is pretty smart. You have given it no indication that you want to write custom code in As long as that is the case it will keep generating the class in the target folder. However, as soon as you tell AndroMDA that you want to write some custom code in this class, it will generate the class in the src folder under the core project. Now you are free to modify the class and add any code to it. AndroMDA will never overwrite files in the project src folder. They are auto-generated only once for your convenience.

Talking about custom code, note that so far we have not written even a single line of custom code to implement the UserService! AndroMDA has done most of the work for us, e.g. creation of the UserService, UserVO, UserDao, Hibernate mapping file and so on. All that is really left is to fill in the "handle" method in UserServiceImpl. To do this, add the bold lines shown in the listing below to your UserServiceImpl class.

// license-header java merge-point
 * This is only generated once! It will never be overwritten.
 * You can (and have to!) safely modify it by hand.
 * TEMPLATE:    SpringServiceImpl.vsl in andromda-spring cartridge
 * MODEL CLASS: Data::timetracker::org.andromda.timetracker::service::UserService
 * STEREOTYPE:  Service
package org.andromda.timetracker.service;
import java.util.Collection;
import org.andromda.timetracker.domain.UserDao;
import org.andromda.timetracker.vo.UserVO;
 * @see org.andromda.timetracker.service.UserService
public class UserServiceImpl
    extends UserServiceBase
     * @see org.andromda.timetracker.service.UserService#getAllUsers()
    protected  Collection<UserVO> handleGetAllUsers()
        throws Exception
        return (Collection<UserVO>)getUserDao().loadAll(UserDao.TRANSFORM_USERVO);

Here we make a direct call to the loadAll() method in UserDao which is completely implemented in UserDaoBase. We supply the UserDao.TRANSFORM_USERVO parameter to the loadAll() method which asks the method to convert the User entities to UserVO objects before returning. That's it! You see how simple it was to implement this method, no need to write DAOs or convert database records to objects, AndroMDA takes care of all this for you.

Well, we think that UserService is now completely implemented. Let's test it. Execute the command below to run UserServiceTest. Note that this time we do not execute mvn install because this command regenerates code and rebuilds the entire application. Since we have not made any model changes after the last build, it makes sense to just run the test target in the core project.

                C:\timetracker>mvn -f core/pom.xml test
                 T E S T S
                Running TestSuite
                Tests run: 1, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0, Time elapsed: 2.048 sec
                Results :
                Tests run: 1, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0
                [INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                [INFO] BUILD SUCCESSFUL
                [INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                [INFO] Total time: 5 seconds
                [INFO] Finished at: Sun Apr 10 16:13:14 BRT 2011
                [INFO] Final Memory: 31M/604M
                [INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------

Hibernate created the user table automaticaly in the database. Follow the steps below to populate this table with test data and then run the test again.

  1. Open MySQL Query Browser. Login as timetracker. You should see the user table in the timetracker schema.
  2. Select File > New Script Tab and paste the following SQL script in the new tab.
                            insert into USERS (ID, USERNAME, FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME)
                            values (1, 'nbhatia', 'Naresh', 'Bhatia');
                            insert into USERS (ID, USERNAME, FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME)
                            values (2, 'lcoude', 'Louis', 'Coude');
                            insert into USERS (ID, USERNAME, FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME)
                            values (3, 'ecrutchfield', 'Eric', 'Crutchfield');
                            insert into USERS (ID, USERNAME, FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME)
                            values (4, 'cmicali', 'Chris', 'Micali');
  3. Click the Execute button on the top right.
  4. Now rerun the test:
    mvn -f core/pom.xml test
  5. Open C:\timetracker\core\timetracker-test.log to see results logged by the test. You should see the usernames printed out at the end of this file:
                            16:59:28.362 INFO - nbhatia
                            16:59:28.362 INFO - lcoude
                            16:59:28.362 INFO - ecrutchfield
                            16:59:28.362 INFO - cmicali

What's Next?

Now that UserService.getAllUsers() method is working, let's try to use it from the front-end. Click here to implement the search criteria panel of the search screen, which needs to call this method.